Tip of the Day - Blind on the Move
Blind on the Move is a site by Mike Mulligan, COMS. Check out Mike's helpful O&M tips of the day on topics ranging from fall avoidance in icy conditions to finding door knobs.
Orientation and mobility is the ability to navigate one’s environment safely and efficiently. Orientation and mobility (“O&M” for short) skills involve knowing where one is in the relation to other objects and people in the environment (orientation) and knowing how to navigate to the desired destination using mobility skills and devices (mobility).
Please see below for important information regarding O&M service delivery:
The British Columbia K-12 Curriculum emphasizes Critical and Reflective Thinking as a core competency. Critical and reflective thinking includes students “[making] judgments based on reasoning: […] consider options; analyze these using specific criteria, and draw conclusions and make judgments.” The curriculum identifies three facets of critical and reflective thinking:
Students with visual impairments need conceptual understanding, skills, and tools to understand and move through their environment at home, at school, and in the community. Orientation and mobility instruction, provided by a trained orientation and mobility specialist, may encompass concept development, use of mobility devices, techniques for moving safely through the environment, and understanding when and how to seek additional information or assistance. Ultimately, the goals of O&M is to allow a student to travel as independently or interdependently as possible (Fazzi, 2014) Direct instruction in these skills promotes independence and safely.
American Printing House for the Blind. Tactile Town: 3-D and O&M Graphics Kit. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind. [Resource Kit]
American Printing House for the Blind. Picture maker: Wheatley tactile diagramming kit. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind. [Resource Kit]
Fazzi, D. L. & Petersmeyer, B. A. (2001). Imagining the possibilities: creative approaches to orientation and mobility instruction for persons who are visually impaired. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind. [Professional Text]
Pogrund, R. L. & Griffin-Shirley, N. (2018). Partners in O&M: supporting orientation and mobility for students who are visually impaired. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind. [Professional Text]
Zatta, M. C. (2014). Alternate routes: Adapting orientation and mobility techniques. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. [Professional DVD]
Atlantic Provinces Special Education Authority (2019). Orientation and Mobility Delivery Guidelines. Halifax, NS: APSEA.
British Columbia Ministry of Education. Framework for independent Travel: A resource for orientation and mobility instruction. Retrieved from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/kindergarten-to-grade-12/teach/teaching-tools/inclusive/fit.pdf
PRCVI. O&M Sharing Day - Victor Stream and Favourite Resources. Retrieved from https://www.prcvi.org/resources/the-expanded-core-curriculum/orientation-and-mobility/orientation-and-mobility-sharing-days/
PRCVI. Mobility Monday - Remote Leaning and O&M. Retrieved from https://prcvi.org/resources/the-expanded-core-curriculum/orientation-and-mobility/mobility-monday-remote-learning-for-om/
Microsoft Corporation. (2019). Microsoft Soundscape App. Retrieved from https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/product/soundscape/
VisionAware. An introduction to orientation and mobility. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind. Retrieved from https://www.visionaware.org/info/everyday-living/essential-skills/an-introduction-to-orientation-and-mobility-skills/123
Perkins School for the Blind. O&M and CVI. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. Retrieved from https://www.perkinselearning.org/earn-credits/self-paced/om-and-cvi-tutorial
Perkins School for the Blind. Wheelchair Orientation & Mobility. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. Retrieved from https://www.perkinselearning.org/videos/webcast/wheelchair-orientation-mobility
TMAP from the San Francisco Lighthouse. Are you introducing outdoor map reading to your student? TMAP is an online tool that uses map coordinates to automatically generate a tactile map file to be embossed on a graphics-capable embosser (such as a Tiger). Retrieved from
Fazzi, D. L. (2014). Orientation and Mobility. In Allman, C. B., Lewis, S., & Spungin, S. J. (eds.). ECC essentials: Teaching the expanded core curriculum to students with visual impairments (pp. 248-282. New York, NY: AFB Press.